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Chocolate

A review article by METU Food Engineering Researchers titled as Mathematical Modeling and Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Oil Migration in Chocolate Confectionery Systems was published online on Food Engineering Reviews : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12393-016-9152-4

Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covered the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also included a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI. Additional to literature studies, MRI experiment for a two-layer chocolate system (peanut butter over chocolate layer) stored for 29 days at 30 °C was also performed in a 3T clinical scanner (SIEMENS MAGNETOM Trio, Germany) at UMRAM. During the storage, oil migrated from peanut butter to the chocolate region and resulted in a brighter visualization in chocolate layer starting from the top of chocolate surface. Due to incompatibility of the migrating oil, cocoa butter would be dissolved in the migrating oil and could contribute to signal intensity significantly. In that regard, this review is expected to act as a guide for researchers and industries to use MRI as a tool for monitoring oil migration and as a characterization tool for various applications in food science.

 

UMRAM's former postdoctoral researcher Dr. Irtiza Gilani and his collaborators have published a comprehensive review article in NMR in Biomedicine earlier this year. This article presents a critique of all rotating-frame MRI methods developed since inception of this relaxometry technique in MRI during the last 30 years. The rotating-frame MRI methods are relaxation rate measurement techniques which can be used in addition to the traditional T1 or T2 measurements. Current clinical applications of this technique are also summarized in this paper. Click here for further information and the journal article."

 

 

An article by Dr. Hatice Pınar Gunbey of 19 Mayıs University and our researcher Arzu Ceylan Has has been published in European Radiology.  The researchers aim to provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children withDown’s syndrome (DS).

Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics(TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxel wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity(MD) of WM. Volumetric analyses were performed with anautomated segmentation method to obtain regional measure-ments of cortical volumes.
The preliminary results suggest that DTI and volumetric analyses may reflect the earliest complementary changes of the neurodevelopmental delay in children with DS and can serve as surrogate biomarkers of the specific elements of WM and GM integrity for cognitive development. The full article can be found here: 

A research project of which imaging studies carried out in UMRAM has been published in Neuroscience Letters. The research entitled ‘Perisylvian GABA levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder' by Dr. Murat İlhan Atagün and his group has aimed  to measure GABA levels of perisylvian cortices in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In this study patients with schizophrenia (n = 25), bipolar I disorder (BD-I; n = 28) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II; n = 20) were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). 1H-MRS data was acquired using a Siemens 3 T whole body scanner to quantify right and left perisylvian structures’(including superior temporal lobes) GABAlevels. Right perisylvian GABAvalues differed significantly between groups [2 = 9.62, df: 3, p = 0.022]. It is concluded that GABA levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (p = 0.002). Furthermore, Chlorpromazine equivalent doses of antipsychotics correlated with right hemisphere GABA levels (r2 = 0.68, p = 0.006, n = 33). GABA levels are elevated in the right hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder and healthy controls. The more on this article can be found here

 

 

A new study by UMRAM researchers Professor Kader Karlı Oguz and  Arzu Ceylan Has has been published in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders's November issue. In this study,  the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline were investigated. For  this purpose thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner.

In this study, It has been found that disease duration and educational years had contributions to some of the cognitive test scores, while age affected some volumetric measures of the brain. So while analyzing the correlations between test performances and volumetric measures, our researchers has controlled these confounding factors. By doing so, the accuracy of the correlations has also been controlled. In our patients with CIS, it was shown that cognitive impairment was mainly related to cerebral white matter, cerebellar cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, but not with cortical inflammation, at least in the early stage of disease. For article please go:

 

This year we have celebrated new year early by combining it with the Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center 2016 Scientific Meeting. The day started with Dr. Emre Guven's excellent talk on compressed sensing. Short four talks from the researcher of our center followed an enlightening talk by Prof. Turgay Dalkara on discovering brain. Attendance exceed the capacity of our conference room. Later 38 posters were presented and dinner was served. The event lasted about 6 hours and the total attendance was over 100 people. UMRAM and Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center would like to thank all speakers, and poster presenters and well as guests of the event.

 

 

A new study by UMRAM researchers has been published in Nature Scientific Reports. Using a rapid motion adaptation paradigm, they investigated the dynamics of spatiotemporal correlation between ON and OFF pathways in human vision. Their results indicated distinct temporal dynamics for the spatiotemporal correlation within and across pathway mechanisms. Click here for further information and the journal article.